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Ronda Rousey Is Set To Star In A Movie Based On Her Autobiography

Hopefully the film will be longer than her recent fights.

Current UFC Women’s Bantamweight Champion Ronda Rousey is on a high after this weekend’s 34-second victory over Bethe Correia.

Current UFC Women's Bantamweight Champion Ronda Rousey is on a high after this weekend's 34-second victory over Bethe Correia.

Harry How / Getty Images

On top of Rousey kicking ass in UFC, Variety just announced that she’s set to star in a movie based on her autobiography My Fight/Your Fight.

On top of Rousey kicking ass in UFC, Variety just announced that she's set to star in a movie based on her autobiography My Fight/Your Fight.

Regan Arts

Paramount Pictures has secured the rights to the book, but there has been no announcement as to when the movie will start production.

Paramount Pictures has secured the rights to the book, but there has been no announcement as to when the movie will start production.

Anthony Kwan / Getty Images


[source BuzzFeed]

How to Succeed in Crowdfunding: Be Thin, White, and Attractive

The Internet is awash with guides for finding success on the crowdfunding website Kickstarter. A quick search yields (in numerical order):

  • “6 Tips From Kickstarter on How to Run a Successful Crowdfunding Campaign”

  • “Crowdfunding Secrets: 7 Tips For Kickstarter Success”
  • “8 Things I Learned From My (Failed) Kickstarter Campaign”

  • “Kicking Ass & Taking Donations: 9 Tips on Funding Your Kickstarter Project”

  • “10 Tips I Wish I Knew Before I Launched My Kickstarter Campaign”

And so on.

But the best advice to those seeking money online might sound more like this: Be thin, fair-skinned, and attractive.

It is true that in many realms, crowdfunding has delivered on its democratic promise. Take female entrepreneurship: It’s been shown that professional investors have consistently view pitches from men more favorably than those from women, even when the content of those pitches was the same. Kickstarter has subverted that. On the site, projects launched by women are more likely to secure funding than those started by men.

That said, some recent research suggests that when it comes to websites that connect investors with entrepreneurs and donors with charitable recipients, the Internet’s levelling power is not strong enough to dissolve other types of longstanding bias. Fundraisers’ physical appearance, which is evident from their profile pictures on sites such as Kickstarter and Kiva, can subtly guide donation or investment decisions. That’s worrying as a trawl through beseeching online profiles has become a more and more common way for donors, investors, and shoppers to decide how to give their money not just to any given entrepreneur, but even to homeless people and prospective college students.

Recently, researchers from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, the National University of Singapore, and Nanyang Technological University (also in Singapore) looked at how users of the microlending site Kiva decided who they’d give a loan to. To start, the researchers coded and rated the profile pictures of thousands of potential recipients, recording their attractiveness, skin color, and physique. (These are glaringly subjective, but each picture was rated by four different people on two different continents, to make sure that ratings didn’t differ too wildly.)

After analyzing the tens of thousands of loans made in a single month, the researchers found that Kiva’s users appeared to rely on the physical characteristics visible in profile pictures when choosing a recipient. The discrimination could be quantified: For a loan of $ 700, the average size on Kiva, the beautiful received the equivalent of a $ 60 bonus. Recipients who were overweight or had relatively dark skin, on the other hand, would suffer penalties of roughly $ 65 and $ 40, respectively.

Even though Kiva has charitable elements, picking a recipient is still an investment: Even a purely charitable lender will try to maximize the chances of recovering his or her loan, if only to make another one on the site. Keeping that in mind, what if Kiva users are consciously seeking out the beautiful, the slim, and the fair-skinned because they think those types of people will be more likely to repay their loans on time? The researchers investigated this possibility, and found that these characteristics aren’t useful predictors of whether a recipient will pay back his or her loan. While Kiva’s users might not be consciously unfair, their biased decision making doesn’t lead to any smarter investments.

Regardless of whether such bias is conscious or unconscious, the researchers had a guess as to why some users were being swayed by physical characteristics. “We argue that implicit discrimination may characterize lending decisions on Kiva, because of the dizzying array of choices available and the lack of any obvious decision criteria for making a funding choice,” they write. Without anything else to go on, users default to old stereotypes. Indeed, it turned out that the same investment biases didn’t appear when the researchers analyzed only the loans made by the most experienced of Kiva’s lenders.

The perks of asking for money while beautiful don’t stop at Kiva—earlier this year, University College London’s Nichola Raihani and the University of Bristol’s Sarah Smith uncovered a similar effect in the fundraising efforts arising from the London Virgin Marathon. (Unlike in the Kiva study, Raihani and Smith focused on perceived attractiveness alone, not skin tone or body size.) As with many distance-running events, marathoners were encouraged to raise funds for various causes, and could set up pages with their fundraising goals and a list of donor names and their pledged amounts. As in the Kiva study, the researchers recorded recipients’ gender and attractiveness. Then, they closely examined the donations that accumulated on each page.

They noticed an interesting pattern. It wasn’t just that more-attractive runners of both genders brought in more money (which they did, netting nearly $ 300 more on average). It was that the order and size of the previous donations mattered: Whenever men donated a lot of money (“a lot” being twice as much as the average donation on that page) to an attractive woman’s cause and then were listed as the most recent donor on her page, the next man who donated tended to pledge an even larger amount of money. Ignoring gender, the typical follow-up contribution when one person donated a lot of money was about £10 larger than the average donation; when it was a man following another man’s large donation on an attractive woman’s page, the increase was closer to £30. Men gave four times as much in this case than they normally did following a large donation to a less-attractive woman. (Women demonstrated no such pattern.)


Men Donate More When Trying to Show off on an Attractive Woman’s Profile


Raihani and Smith

To make sense of this behavior, Raihani and Smith thought of each donation page as a “tournament” in which men vied for the attention of attractive female runners. The researchers wrote of “a biological market, where individuals compete for access to partners with the highest market value by signaling their value through costly helping displays.” Whether the men knew it or not, the theory goes, they were using big donations to signal that they were wealthy or that they were cooperative—both of which are sought-after traits on the evolutionary market.

Parts of the online marketplace, then, are subject to the same old biases that reign in the analog world. Just as the Kiva study suggested, door-to-door fundraising experiments in the past have shown that attractive women and non-black people have an edge. And just as the marathon study revealed, men playing a small game in a lab were shown to be more generous when a woman was present—and even more so when that woman was attractive.

Some biases may be even stronger on the Internet. A study published earlier this year catalogued a series of interactions on World of Warcraft, and found that the appearance of players’ avatars ended up shaping how likely they were to get receive help from others in the game. Even though avatars are customizable and offer no useful indication of a player’s physical appearance (let alone personality traits), the more-attractive ones tended to get more help. And when female players picked male avatars, they received less public goodwill than male players who picked male avatars. Which suggests a corollary to an old saying: On the Internet, everyone knows you’re a woman.

This article was originally published at http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/08/crowdfunding-success-kickstarter-kiva-succeed/400232/












[via theatlantic]

Digicel Nationwide Schools Football Competition…Christianburg / Wismar do it again

– Annai beat Waramadong

The question of who could stop defending champion Christianburg / Wismar was answered emphatically yesterday in the final of the Digicel Nationwide Schools Football Competition which ended, at the National Stadium at Providence.
The champs weathered an early onslaught by Chase’s Academic Foundation, before cruising to a comfortable 2-1 win in front of what is estimated to be the largest crowd to witness the final in the tournament’s history.

Minister within the Ministry of Education Nicolette Henry (3rd right standing) and Digicel CEO Kevin Kelly (next to her) pose with the winning trophy and the victorious Christainburg / Wismar School during the presentation ceremony yesterday.

Minister within the Ministry of Education Nicolette Henry (3rd right standing) and Digicel CEO Kevin Kelly (next to her) pose with the winning trophy and the victorious Christainburg / Wismar School during the presentation ceremony yesterday.

For the past four years, Waramadong was the recipient of Christianburg/ Wismar’s rampage, but it was Chas e’s Academic Foundation’s turn to suffer from their dominance as Christianburg / Wismar returned to the Mining Town with another lien on the trophy.
Goals from Amar Jones and Omar Brewley in the fourth and 58th minutes respectively were enough to seal the victory, while Kelsey Benjamin’s 76th minute penalty was the lone response for the losers.
With the win, Christianburg/Wismar retained the championship accolade and walked with $ 1,000,000 towards the funding of a school project.
The challengers for their effort received the corresponding accolade and $ 600,000 towards the funding of a school initiative.
Among the dignitaries present at the occasion were Director of Sports Christopher Jones, Minister within the Ministry of Education Nicolette Henry, Digicel CEO Kevin Kelly, Marketing Manager of Digicel Jacqueline James and Guyana Football Federation (GFF) Normalization Committee Member Eric Phillips.
The defending champs took the early lead in their very first attack through a towering header from Amar Jones from a corner kick when he climbed above everyone to direct his attempt into the right hand corner, giving the opposing custodian Amanackie Forde no chance.
The early setback clearly upset Chase’s rhythm as they failed to threaten Christianburg / Wismars goal despite dominating possession.
Benjamin had a good opportunity to level the proceedings, but upon weaving past his marker on the left side of the field his effort sailed just wide of the upright.
A curling freekick from 24 yards out by Brewley crashed into the crossbar and rebounded into play much to the disbelief of his team-mates.
Benjamin later latched on to a pool clearance and with only the goalkeeper to beat, his volley attempt sailed over the crossbar.
The half came with Christianburg / Wismar clinging to a slim 1-0 lead.

Champions Christianburg/ Wismar players rise to head home their opening goal off a corner against Chase Academy yesterday.

Champions Christianburg/ Wismar players rise to head home their opening goal off a corner against Chase Academy yesterday.

The intensity resumed in the second period as both teams tried to strengthen their contrasting positions.
It was the Lindeners that made the early inroad in the period, increasing their lead 13 minutes into the half as Brewley placed a left footed shot into the right hand corner from just outside the box as the Linden support erupted.
Staring down a 2-0 deficit and guilty of over playing the ball in the final third, the Georgetown unit eventually grabbed a lifeline as Benjamin was brought down within the left side of the box, forcing the referee to award a penalty kick.
Benjamin strode up to the spot and buried his shot to the left of the goalkeeper who had moved to his right.
The holders survived a tense fourteen minutes through solid defending, before the final whistle sounded.
In the third place playoff, Annai Secondary defeated Waramadong Secondary 4-3 on penalty kicks after normal time finished 3-3.
Prior to the penalty shoot-out, Annai took the early lead in the second minute as Sherral Daniels scored with a tame shot from the right side that went comically through the hands of the keeper and into the back of the net.
Annai then doubled their lead in the 28th minute as Sherral Daniels netted his second of the match, placing his effort from the right side of the box, under the body of the diving keeper, after racing onto a loose ball that originated from the right side of the field.
Waramadong eventually got back into the fixture in the 45th+1 minute under dubious circumstances as they were awarded a penalty kick following a slightest of contact within the right side of the box.
Stepping up to take the spot-kick was Deon Rodrigues who buried his effort into the lower right hand corner to cut the deficit going into the half time interval.
The three time losing finalist eventually leveled the score in the 46th minute of the second half compliments of Azual Medina, who fired his effort into the lower left hand corner following a quick passing combination.
Waramadong eventually took the lead in the 64th minute as Medina grabbed his brace, finishing down the centre of the net following one-on-one situation, after racing onto a lobbed past over the defensive line.
Nevertheless, Annai restored parity to proceedings in the 82nd minute, pushing the game into its eventual end as Triston Daniels scored.
Receiving the ball 22 yards from goal in the centre of the field, Daniels unleashed a powerful effort that the keeper would only push into the lower right hand corner of the net.
At the presentation ceremony that followed the conclusion of the event, Captain and custodian of Christianburg/Wismar Tevin Crawford received the golden glove award, while Sherral Daniel of Annai walked away with the golden boot award for most goals.

[via kaieteurnewsonline]

A True “Fair Play” Story

President Thomas Bach expressed his gratitude to all four candidate cities: “I would like to thank and congratulate the four candidate cities for a competition that took place with remarkable fair play,” he said. “They all have competed over many months, and at not a single stage did we have any kind of indication that the rules of fair play were being violated. Last night after the decision, we met together with the two bid leaders, the Chinese Vice-Premier and the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan. It was really a great symbol of the Olympic spirit to see the leaders congratulating each other, promising each other support and cooperation in the future, and highlighting that they want to give a good example of fair play and the Olympic spirit with their friendly competition,” he added.

Beijing became the first city in history to get to host summer and winter editions of the Olympic Games, and Lausanne was elected host of the 3rd edition of the Winter Youth Olympic Games.
 
IOC Members in the countries of the bidding cities also took the floor this morning.
 
IOC Vice-President Zaiqing Yu said: “You have trusted China and we will continue to make further efforts to deliver every expectation of the IOC and Olympic Agenda 2020. China will never let you down.”
 
Patrick Baumann, IOC Member in Switzerland and Lausanne 2020 bid leader, said: “I would like to thank our Romanian friends for their passion and the spirit of fair play that they have shown over the last few months.”
 
Finally, Octavian Morariu, IOC Member in Romania, said: “I want to congratulate Beijing and Lausanne for their election, and particularly Lausanne of course. We came with an open heart but also knowing that we would learn a lot. It was a bit like Romania playing New Zealand in rugby. But we know the final outcome. We have learned a lot and we will go back home and train, and I hope that we will be back on the field soon.”

[via olympic.org]

How to Succeed in Crowdfunding: Be Thin, White, and Attractive

The Internet is awash with guides for finding success on the crowdfunding website Kickstarter. A quick search yields (in numerical order):

  • “6 Tips From Kickstarter on How to Run a Successful Crowdfunding Campaign”

  • “Crowdfunding Secrets: 7 Tips For Kickstarter Success”
  • “8 Things I Learned From My (Failed) Kickstarter Campaign”

  • “Kicking Ass & Taking Donations: 9 Tips on Funding Your Kickstarter Project”

  • “10 Tips I Wish I Knew Before I Launched My Kickstarter Campaign”

And so on.

But the best advice to those seeking money online might sound more like this: Be thin, fair-skinned, and attractive.

It is true that in many realms, crowdfunding has delivered on its democratic promise. Take female entrepreneurship: It’s been shown that professional investors have consistently view pitches from men more favorably than those from women, even when the content of those pitches was the same. Kickstarter has subverted that. On the site, projects launched by women are more likely to secure funding than those started by men.

That said, some recent research suggests that when it comes to websites that connect investors with entrepreneurs and donors with charitable recipients, the Internet’s levelling power is not strong enough to dissolve other types of longstanding bias. Fundraisers’ physical appearance, which is evident from their profile pictures on sites such as Kickstarter and Kiva, can subtly guide donation or investment decisions. That’s worrying as a trawl through beseeching online profiles has become a more and more common way for donors, investors, and shoppers to decide how to give their money not just to any given entrepreneur, but even to homeless people and prospective college students.

Recently, researchers from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, the National University of Singapore, and Nanyang Technological University (also in Singapore) looked at how users of the microlending site Kiva decided who they’d give a loan to. To start, the researchers coded and rated the profile pictures of thousands of potential recipients, recording their attractiveness, skin color, and physique. (These are glaringly subjective, but each picture was rated by four different people on two different continents, to make sure that ratings didn’t differ too wildly.)

After analyzing the tens of thousands of loans made in a single month, the researchers found that Kiva’s users appeared to rely on the physical characteristics visible in profile pictures when choosing a recipient. The discrimination could be quantified: For a loan of $ 700, the average size on Kiva, the beautiful received the equivalent of a $ 60 bonus. Recipients who were overweight or had relatively dark skin, on the other hand, would suffer penalties of roughly $ 65 and $ 40, respectively.

Even though Kiva has charitable elements, picking a recipient is still an investment: Even a purely charitable lender will try to maximize the chances of recovering his or her loan, if only to make another one on the site. Keeping that in mind, what if Kiva users are consciously seeking out the beautiful, the slim, and the fair-skinned because they think those types of people will be more likely to repay their loans on time? The researchers investigated this possibility, and found that these characteristics aren’t useful predictors of whether a recipient will pay back his or her loan. While Kiva’s users might not be consciously unfair, their biased decision making doesn’t lead to any smarter investments.

Regardless of whether such bias is conscious or unconscious, the researchers had a guess as to why some users were being swayed by physical characteristics. “We argue that implicit discrimination may characterize lending decisions on Kiva, because of the dizzying array of choices available and the lack of any obvious decision criteria for making a funding choice,” they write. Without anything else to go on, users default to old stereotypes. Indeed, it turned out that the same investment biases didn’t appear when the researchers analyzed only the loans made by the most experienced of Kiva’s lenders.

The perks of asking for money while beautiful don’t stop at Kiva—earlier this year, University College London’s Nichola Raihani and the University of Bristol’s Sarah Smith uncovered a similar effect in the fundraising efforts arising from the London Virgin Marathon. (Unlike in the Kiva study, Raihani and Smith focused on perceived attractiveness alone, not skin tone or body size.) As with many distance-running events, marathoners were encouraged to raise funds for various causes, and could set up pages with their fundraising goals and a list of donor names and their pledged amounts. As in the Kiva study, the researchers recorded recipients’ gender and attractiveness. Then, they closely examined the donations that accumulated on each page.

They noticed an interesting pattern. It wasn’t just that more-attractive runners of both genders brought in more money (which they did, netting nearly $ 300 more on average). It was that the order and size of the previous donations mattered: Whenever men donated a lot of money (“a lot” being twice as much as the average donation on that page) to an attractive woman’s cause and then were listed as the most recent donor on her page, the next man who donated tended to pledge an even larger amount of money. Ignoring gender, the typical follow-up contribution when one person donated a lot of money was about £10 larger than the average donation; when it was a man following another man’s large donation on an attractive woman’s page, the increase was closer to £30. Men gave four times as much in this case than they normally did following a large donation to a less-attractive woman. (Women demonstrated no such pattern.)


Men Donate More When Trying to Show off on an Attractive Woman’s Profile


Raihani and Smith

To make sense of this behavior, Raihani and Smith thought of each donation page as a “tournament” in which men vied for the attention of attractive female runners. The researchers wrote of “a biological market, where individuals compete for access to partners with the highest market value by signaling their value through costly helping displays.” Whether the men knew it or not, the theory goes, they were using big donations to signal that they were wealthy or that they were cooperative—both of which are sought-after traits on the evolutionary market.

Parts of the online marketplace, then, are subject to the same old biases that reign in the analog world. Just as the Kiva study suggested, door-to-door fundraising experiments in the past have shown that attractive women and non-black people have an edge. And just as the marathon study revealed, men playing a small game in a lab were shown to be more generous when a woman was present—and even more so when that woman was attractive.

Some biases may be even stronger on the Internet. A study published earlier this year catalogued a series of interactions on World of Warcraft, and found that the appearance of players’ avatars ended up shaping how likely they were to get receive help from others in the game. Even though avatars are customizable and offer no useful indication of a player’s physical appearance (let alone personality traits), the more-attractive ones tended to get more help. And when female players picked male avatars, they received less public goodwill than male players who picked male avatars. Which suggests a corollary to an old saying: On the Internet, everyone knows you’re a woman.

This article was originally published at http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/08/crowdfunding-success-kickstarter-kiva-succeed/400232/












[via theatlantic]

Winners of the 2015 National Geographic Traveler Photo Contest

The winners of the 27th annual

National Geographic Traveler Photo Contest have just been announced. Winning first prize, Anuar Patjane Floriuk of Tehuacán, Mexico, will receive an eight-day photo expedition for two to Costa Rica and the Panama Canal for a photograph of divers swimming near a humpback whale off the western coast of Mexico. Here, National Geographic has shared all of this year’s winners, gathered from four categories: Travel Portraits, Outdoor Scenes, Sense of Place, and Spontaneous Moments. Captions by the photographers.

This article was originally published at http://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2015/08/winners-of-the-2015-national-geographic-traveler-photo-contest/400373/












[via theatlantic]

How to Succeed in Crowdfunding: Be Thin, White, and Attractive

The Internet is awash with guides for finding success on the crowdfunding website Kickstarter. A quick search yields (in numerical order):

  • “6 Tips From Kickstarter on How to Run a Successful Crowdfunding Campaign”

  • “Crowdfunding Secrets: 7 Tips For Kickstarter Success”
  • “8 Things I Learned From My (Failed) Kickstarter Campaign”

  • “Kicking Ass & Taking Donations: 9 Tips on Funding Your Kickstarter Project”

  • “10 Tips I Wish I Knew Before I Launched My Kickstarter Campaign”

And so on.

But the best advice to those seeking money online might sound more like this: Be thin, fair-skinned, and attractive.

It is true that in many realms, crowdfunding has delivered on its democratic promise. Take female entrepreneurship: It’s been shown that professional investors have consistently view pitches from men more favorably than those from women, even when the content of those pitches was the same. Kickstarter has subverted that. On the site, projects launched by women are more likely to secure funding than those started by men.

That said, some recent research suggests that when it comes to websites that connect investors with entrepreneurs and donors with charitable recipients, the Internet’s levelling power is not strong enough to dissolve other types of longstanding bias. Fundraisers’ physical appearance, which is evident from their profile pictures on sites such as Kickstarter and Kiva, can subtly guide donation or investment decisions. That’s worrying as a trawl through beseeching online profiles has become a more and more common way for donors, investors, and shoppers to decide how to give their money not just to any given entrepreneur, but even to homeless people and prospective college students.

Recently, researchers from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, the National University of Singapore, and Nanyang Technological University (also in Singapore) looked at how users of the microlending site Kiva decided who they’d give a loan to. To start, the researchers coded and rated the profile pictures of thousands of potential recipients, recording their attractiveness, skin color, and physique. (These are glaringly subjective, but each picture was rated by four different people on two different continents, to make sure that ratings didn’t differ too wildly.)

After analyzing the tens of thousands of loans made in a single month, the researchers found that Kiva’s users appeared to rely on the physical characteristics visible in profile pictures when choosing a recipient. The discrimination could be quantified: For a loan of $ 700, the average size on Kiva, the beautiful received the equivalent of a $ 60 bonus. Recipients who were overweight or had relatively dark skin, on the other hand, would suffer penalties of roughly $ 65 and $ 40, respectively.

Even though Kiva has charitable elements, picking a recipient is still an investment: Even a purely charitable lender will try to maximize the chances of recovering his or her loan, if only to make another one on the site. Keeping that in mind, what if Kiva users are consciously seeking out the beautiful, the slim, and the fair-skinned because they think those types of people will be more likely to repay their loans on time? The researchers investigated this possibility, and found that these characteristics aren’t useful predictors of whether a recipient will pay back his or her loan. While Kiva’s users might not be consciously unfair, their biased decision making doesn’t lead to any smarter investments.

Regardless of whether such bias is conscious or unconscious, the researchers had a guess as to why some users were being swayed by physical characteristics. “We argue that implicit discrimination may characterize lending decisions on Kiva, because of the dizzying array of choices available and the lack of any obvious decision criteria for making a funding choice,” they write. Without anything else to go on, users default to old stereotypes. Indeed, it turned out that the same investment biases didn’t appear when the researchers analyzed only the loans made by the most experienced of Kiva’s lenders.

The perks of asking for money while beautiful don’t stop at Kiva—earlier this year, University College London’s Nichola Raihani and the University of Bristol’s Sarah Smith uncovered a similar effect in the fundraising efforts arising from the London Virgin Marathon. (Unlike in the Kiva study, Raihani and Smith focused on perceived attractiveness alone, not skin tone or body size.) As with many distance-running events, marathoners were encouraged to raise funds for various causes, and could set up pages with their fundraising goals and a list of donor names and their pledged amounts. As in the Kiva study, the researchers recorded recipients’ gender and attractiveness. Then, they closely examined the donations that accumulated on each page.

They noticed an interesting pattern. It wasn’t just that more-attractive runners of both genders brought in more money (which they did, netting nearly $ 300 more on average). It was that the order and size of the previous donations mattered: Whenever men donated a lot of money (“a lot” being twice as much as the average donation on that page) to an attractive woman’s cause and then were listed as the most recent donor on her page, the next man who donated tended to pledge an even larger amount of money. Ignoring gender, the typical follow-up contribution when one person donated a lot of money was about £10 larger than the average donation; when it was a man following another man’s large donation on an attractive woman’s page, the increase was closer to £30. Men gave four times as much in this case than they normally did following a large donation to a less-attractive woman. (Women demonstrated no such pattern.)


Men Donate More When Trying to Show off on an Attractive Woman’s Profile


Raihani and Smith

To make sense of this behavior, Raihani and Smith thought of each donation page as a “tournament” in which men vied for the attention of attractive female runners. The researchers wrote of “a biological market, where individuals compete for access to partners with the highest market value by signaling their value through costly helping displays.” Whether the men knew it or not, the theory goes, they were using big donations to signal that they were wealthy or that they were cooperative—both of which are sought-after traits on the evolutionary market.

Parts of the online marketplace, then, are subject to the same old biases that reign in the analog world. Just as the Kiva study suggested, door-to-door fundraising experiments in the past have shown that attractive women and non-black people have an edge. And just as the marathon study revealed, men playing a small game in a lab were shown to be more generous when a woman was present—and even more so when that woman was attractive.

Some biases may be even stronger on the Internet. A study published earlier this year catalogued a series of interactions on World of Warcraft, and found that the appearance of players’ avatars ended up shaping how likely they were to get receive help from others in the game. Even though avatars are customizable and offer no useful indication of a player’s physical appearance (let alone personality traits), the more-attractive ones tended to get more help. And when female players picked male avatars, they received less public goodwill than male players who picked male avatars. Which suggests a corollary to an old saying: On the Internet, everyone knows you’re a woman.

This article was originally published at http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/08/crowdfunding-success-kickstarter-kiva-succeed/400232/












[via theatlantic]